Rudolf Schwarz - Germany

Rudolf Schwarz (15.05.1897 - 03.04.1961) was a German architect who was well known for his designs for Catholic churches, and his writings about architecture.
In Cologne he had a significant impact on the urban development through plans to rebuild the war-torn city. Many buildings in this city and its environments witness his creative activities.
He studied architecture
at the University of Berlin until 1918  and - until he was called to military service shortly before the war ended - at the Technical University in Berlin-Charlottenburg.
Impressed by his experiences in World War I, he studied catholic theology for one year at the University of Bonn. His dissertation was devoted to the early types of country churches in the rhine region.
In 1924 he was accepted as a master student of Hans Poelzig at the Berlin Academy of Arts. During this time Rudolf Schwarz was engaged in the Catholic Youth Movement "Quickborn".
He was active as a co-editor of the magazin "Die Schildgenossen" and came into contact with Romano Guardini, who had a strong spiritual influence on him.
During this period also started a lifelong friendship with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.

In the years 1925 to 1927, Rudolf Schwarz worked as a techer for Building Technology at the Technical College in Offenbach am Main.
During this time he shared a studio with Dominikus Böhm, who had a lasting influence on the architecture of Rudolf Schwarz.
In 1927 Rudolf Schwarz was appointed director of the School of Applied Arts Aachen, which was closed in 1934.
After the publication of his first book (Wegweisung der Technik), Rudolf Schwarz started his lasting collaboration with the later famous photographer Albert Renger-Patzsch.
Despite great difficulties Rudolf Schwarz did not leave the country during the period of National Socialism.
In the Lorraine region, which was "liberated" from the Nazis, he was appointed head of reconstruction during World War II.
After World War II Rudolf Schwarz organized the reconstruction of the largely destroyed city of Cologne from 1946 to 1952.
He developed the model of the so-called Cologne twin cities, which intended the an educational and commercial area
in the southern and western parts of the city,
while the north part should be predominantly of an industrial function. As a consequence of his work for the city planning of cologne, Rudolf Schwarz published
his writing "The New Cologne", which is to be understood as an alternative idea to the functionalist urban thoughts of the CIAM members.
From 1953 to 1961 he taught at the Dusseldorf Art Academy. This work resulted in an open conflict with Walter Gropius, and finally in
the break with functionalism and its representants.

1928            House of Youth - Aachen
1929 - 1930  Church Corpus Cristy - Aachen
1929 - 1930  Social Women School - Aachen
1947 - 1954  Church St. Mechtern - Cologne
1950 - 1952  Church St. Marien (Reconstruction) - Cologne
1950 - 1951  Anglican Church of All Saints - Cologne
1951 - 1956  Church St. Anna - Düren

1952 - 1955  Reconstruction of Gürzenich - Cologne
1952 - 1954  Church St. Maria Königin - Frechen
1952 - 1955  Church St. Joseph - Cologne
1952 - 1955  Church Of Our Lady (Liebfrauenkirche) - Cologne
1952 - 1956  Church St. Michael - Frankfurt
1953 - 1957  Wallraf-Richartz Museum - Cologne
1954 - 1957  Church St. Franziskus - Essen
1954 - 1957  Church St. Andreas - Essen
1954 - 1965  Church St. Christopherus - Cologne
1956 - 1958  Academy of Arts Extension - Düsseldorf

1956 - 1959  Church St. Antonius - Essen
1956 - 1963  Church St. Florian - Vienna
1959 - 1962  Catholic School - Cologne
1959 - 1964  Church St. Bonifatius - Aachen